14.3 C
New York

Solar-thermal heat pump configurations for buildings – pv magazine International


Italian researchers investigated completely different system configurations for photovoltaic-thermal solar-assisted warmth pumps in buildings. They are saying that the usage of the PV-thermal collector because the evaporator of the warmth pump leads to the very best warmth restoration, however a dual-source system with a separate warmth exchanger is probably the most promising answer to cowl all the warmth wants.

Researchers from the Polytechnic College of Milan present an summary of the completely different configurations of photovoltaic-thermal solar-assisted warmth pump (PVT-SAHP) programs in buildings. Whereas most analysis focuses on the historical past of thermal solar-assisted warmth pumps, lecturers observe that “the usage of photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) photo voltaic collectors is increasing, which might be exploited by warmth pumps, with advantages for each system.”

The group targeted solely on vapor-compression warmth pumps and PVT-SAHP programs for heating or cooling water – the commonest purposes in buildings. They are saying they’re solely contemplating water-based flat plate PVT collectors as a result of they’re “probably the most environment friendly PVT know-how and most possible for HVAC programs.”

Lecturers classify PVT-SAHP programs in response to the best way the warmth pumps use photo voltaic vitality. There are direct-expansion programs (DX), the place the PVT collector is used as a warmth pump evaporator, or indirect-expansion programs (IDX), the place a warmth exchanger is interposed between the PVT and the warmth pump. It will additional differentiate between single-source configurations, the place photo voltaic vitality is the one supply of warmth for the warmth pump, and dual-source programs, the place there may be one other supply of warmth along with photo voltaic.

Single-source direct-expansion PVT-SAHP programs are an environment friendly, easy answer for heating water, in response to the examine. Its purposes for cooling are restricted, because of the lack of further, chilly, sources resembling air or geothermal. Experimental work exhibits a mean coefficient of efficiency (COP) between 2.7 and seven for these programs, registered throughout experiments in favorable environmental circumstances.

The absence of an intermediate warmth exchanger makes their building simpler and lowers the fee. Nonetheless, the usage of the PVT collector because the evaporator of the warmth pump makes the system weak to variable photo voltaic radiation.

“Subsequently, advanced management methods below unstable climate circumstances are required, in addition to the usage of a variable-speed compressor,” the scientists stated.

They observe that you will need to select a refrigerant that matches the wants of the PVT collector and the warmth pump, to make sure that moist refrigerant doesn’t enter the compressor. Twin-source oblique growth PVT-SAHP programs, alternatively, can tackle lots of the shortcomings of those above programs, however they could be much less environment friendly. These programs report a mean COP of two.3 and 4.5, however measurements have been made in long term experiments.

“The primary benefit of IDX-PVT-SAHP programs is the stronger warmth obtained from the photo voltaic aspect, as a result of the refrigerant evaporates in a water-to-gas warmth exchanger below a stronger -on circumstances,” the researchers stated.

They are saying that the separate warmth exchanger additionally permits shortening of cooling traces, decreasing the cooling mass with financial and environmental beneficial properties. The programs additionally permit a extra versatile configuration and the extra warmth supply will increase the output of the warmth pump. This opens up the potential for including thermal water storage to both the warmth pump or consumer aspect.

The second warmth supply makes dual-source oblique growth PVT-SAHP programs a greater answer for cooling. It’s a complete answer to cowl all of the constructing’s thermal wants, together with heating, cooling, and home scorching water.

“These programs are additionally extra appropriate to be mixed with floor supply warmth pumps, that are highly regarded in areas the place heating dominates,” the researchers stated.

They declare that flat-plate PVT collectors with direct lamination of PV cells on roll-bond absorbers assure one of the best compromise between effectivity, reliability, manufacturing complexity, and price.

“The mixing of warmth pump programs has been confirmed to enhance electrical and thermal performances because of lively cooling, associated to direct and oblique growth system configurations,” the teachers concluded. .

They shared their findings in “Photovoltaic-thermal solar-assisted warmth pump programs for constructing purposes: Integration and design approaches,” not too long ago printed in Vitality and the Constructed Surroundings.

This content material is protected by copyright and is probably not reused. If you wish to cooperate with us and wish to reuse a few of our content material, please contact: [email protected]

Source link

Related articles


Recent articles