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Heat pumps vs. renewables – a dilemma for Germany’s way out of gas – pv magazine International


Researchers are whether or not Germany may substitute extra fuel with renewable-powered warmth pumps or renewable electrical energy to cut back the load occasions of gas-fired energy crops. They argue that warmth pumps are the quickest strategy to minimize German fuel consumption.

A world group of scientists hypothesized that renewable-powered warmth pumps may very well be one of many quickest methods to cut back Germany’s imports of Russian fuel. To check the speculation, they investigated whether or not extra fuel may very well be changed by changing fuel boilers with renewable-powered warmth pumps. They’re additionally contemplating using renewable electrical energy to cut back load occasions in present gas-fired energy crops.

The investigation depends on a comparability of the coefficient of efficiency (COP) for warmth pumps with the effectivity of gas-fired energy stations. COP is outlined as the quantity of warmth generated by the warmth pump, divided by the electrical energy required to function it. The scientists used the effectivity of mixed cycle fuel generators (CCGT) as a reference, since they supply the vast majority of gas-based electrical energy in Germany.

“Their common annual effectivity in 2020 is the ratio between their electrical energy technology, which is 95.0 TWh, and the fuel consumed, which is 171.4 TWh, which supplies 55%,” they mentioned. “To account for grid losses, we’ve lowered this worth by 50%.”

They declare a COP of two for industrial warmth pumps used within the chemical, paper, and processing industries. For heating the dwelling area, they took the COP for a “generally offered” air-to-water warmth pump: the GMLW 14 PLUS from the German heating tools producer Ochsner. Its COP varies between 3.4 and 5.3 when heating water to 35 C. When heating water to 50 C and 60 C, the COP is 3.1 and a couple of.8, based on the product datasheet. Teachers imagine a mean COP of two.5 for decent water.

They modeled the German energy system utilizing hourly technology information of all contributing energy crops, wind farms, decentralized PV, and storage capacities in 2020 – the 12 months reference. To mannequin the near-future electrical energy technology, they embrace the additions of PV and onshore and offshore wind, based on the crops of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Local weather Safety. They imagine Germany will do sufficient grid enlargement to deal with these capability additions.

The mannequin has 4 eventualities: a “business-as-usual installer’s roadmap” situation, an “accelerated” situation, and “quick” and “very quick” eventualities. The outcomes present that between 2022 and 2024, new photo voltaic and wind capability usually reduces the load occasions of gas-fired energy crops.

“Our hourly resolved modeling reveals that it is because in these early years, there are lots of hours when the solar is shining and/or the wind is blowing, however not sufficient wind farms and PV capacities are already -install to cowl the demand of the grid utterly,” mentioned. the researchers.

Nevertheless, within the “quick” and “very quick” eventualities, warmth pumps take up many of the newly added renewable energy from 2024 to 2030. This represents the quickest strategy to cut back the fuel imports to Germany, based on scientists.

The “very quick” situation reveals fuel financial savings of about 30% by 2025. That’s equal to 290 TWh or 28 billion cubic meters, as Germany imports 971 TWh of fuel in 2020.

“Contemplating that in 2020, about 50% of the fuel will likely be imported from the Russian Federation, the very quick situation will save about 60% of this fuel in 2025,” they argued.

The “quick,” “accelerated,” and “installers’ roadmap” eventualities obtain complete fuel financial savings of about 22%, 18%, and 15% by 2025, respectively.

“The eventualities, developed right here for Germany, should be tailored to the specifics of different nations, however supply clear, tangible, paths to cut back value volatility and dangers within the provide of fossil fuel,” the scientists concluded.

They shared their findings in “Changing fuel boilers with warmth pumps is the quickest strategy to minimize fuel consumption in Germany,” not too long ago revealed in Communication in Nature Land and Surroundings.

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